New Paradigms Forum Proliferation Issues and Much More …

Christopher A. Ford — List of Publications



China Looks at the West: Identity, Global Ambitions, and the Future of Sino-American Relations (University Press of Kentucky, 2015) [614 pp.]

The Mind of Empire: China’s History and Modern Foreign Relations (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2010) (republished in paperback 2015) [380 pp.]

Rethinking the Law of Armed Conflict in an Age of Terrorism (co-edited by Christopher Ford & Amichai Cohen) (Lanham, Maryland: Lexington Books, 2012), [includes two chapters by Ford: “Rethinking the Law of Armed Conflict in an Age of Terrorism,” at xi-xxx, & “Living in the ‘New Normal’: Modern War, Non-State Actors, and the Future of Law,” at 229-304]

The Admirals’ Advantage: U.S. Navy Operational Intelligence in World War II and the Cold War (U.S. Naval Institute Press, March 2005) [219 pp.]  (Paperback edition 2014, with a new introduction by the U.S. Chief of Naval Operations)


Performing the Duties of the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security

“U.S. Priorities for "Next-Generation Arms Control,” U.S. Department of State, ACIS Papers, vol.1, no.1 (April 7, 2020),

“Whither Arms Control in Outer Space? Space Threats, Space Hypocrisy, and the Hope of Space Norms,” remarks to the Center for Strategic and International Studies (April 6, 2020),

“Preventing U.S. Industry's Exploitation by China's 'Military-Civil Fusion' Strategy,” remarks to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce (April 2, 2020),

“The PRC's 'Military-Civil Fusion' Strategy is a Global Security Threat,” DipNote blog post, Bureau of International Security and Nonproliferation, U.S. Department of State (March 16, 2020),

“Opening Remarks in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the NPT,'” remarks to the Conference in Celebration of the 50th Anniversary of the NPT, at the United Nations, New York City (March 5, 2020),

“Sino-American Relations and the Challenge of 'Military-Civil Fusion,'” remarks at the Foreign Service Institute, U.S. Department of State (February 20, 2020),

“The Politics of Arms Control: Getting Beyond Post-Cold War Pathologies and Finding Security in a Competitive Environment,” remarks at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London, UK (February 11, 2020),

“Engagement and Storytelling in Nonproliferation Diplomacy,” remarks at DACOR Bacon House, Washington, D.C. (January 10, 2020),

“The P5, the 'N5,' and the NPT Review Conference,” remarks at Wiston House, Wilton Park, UK (December 16, 2019),

“Rules, Norms, and Community: Arms Control Discourses in a Changing World,” remarks to the European Union Conference on Nonproliferation, Brussels, Belgium (December 13, 2019),

“Challenges of Policymaking in Responsible Nuclear Weapons Stewardship,” remarks to the NATO Parliamentary Assembly, U.S. National Defense University, Washington, D.C. (December 9, 2019),

“Nuclear Security: Rededication and Refocus,” remarks at the Stimson Center, Washington, D.C. (December 2, 2019),

“Moving Forward with the CEND Initiative,” remarks at Wiston House, Wilton Park, UK (November 20, 2019),

“Opening Statement at the Warsaw Process Working Group on Missile Proliferation,” remarks in Bucharest, Romania (November 14, 2019),

“Ideological 'Grievance States' and Nonproliferation: China, Russia, and Iran,” remarks at the Institute for National Security Studies, Tel Aviv, Israel (November 11, 2019),

As Assistant Secretary of State for International Security and Nonproliferation

“The State Department's ISN Bureau: Enduring Priorities and New Missions,” testimony to the Subcommittee on Asia, the Pacific, and Nonproliferation of the Foreign Affairs Committee, U.S. House of Representatives (September 26, 2019),

“Huawei and its Siblings, the Chinese Tech Giants: National Security and Foreign Policy Implications,” remarks at the Multilateral Action on Sensitive Technologies plenary meeting in Washington, D.C. (September 11, 2019),

“Bureaucracy and Counterstrategy: Meeting the China Challenge,” remarks at the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (September 11, 2019),

“Whither a Middle East WMD-Free Zone?” remarks at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Washington, D.C. (August 2, 2019),

“Inaugurating a New and More Realistic Disarmament Dialogue,” remarks at the First Plenary Meeting of the Creating an Environment for Nuclear Disarmament (CEND) Working Group, U.S. Department of State, Washington, D.C. (July 2, 2019),

“Competitive Strategy vis-a-vis China: The Case Study of Civil-Nuclear Cooperation,” remarks to the Project 2049 Institute, Arlington, Virginia, (June 24, 2019),

“Technology and Power in China's Geopolitical Ambition,” testimony to the U.S.-China Economic and Security Commission, Washington, D.C. (June 20, 2019),

“Remarks at the Academy of Strategic Education,” Washington, D.C. (June 12, 2019),

“U.S. Plenary Co-Chair Opening Remarks,” at the 2019 GICNT Plenary Meeting, Buenos Aires, Argentina (June 6, 2019),

“Rebutting False Disarmament Narratives in Support of NPT Diplomacy,” remarks at the Heritage Foundation (May 16, 2019),

“Lessons from Disarmament History for the CEND Initiative,” remarks to a side event at the 2019 NPT PrepCom (April 30, 2019),

“Statement by the United States in General Debate at the 2019 NPT PrepCom,” remarks at the United Nations (April 29, 2019),

“U.S. Strength and Alliance Relationships: The World's Most Successful Nonproliferation Tools?” remarks at the Capitol Hill Club (April 18, 2019),

“Nuclear Disarmament Colloquium: Closing Remarks,” delivered in Geneva, Switzerland (April 15, 2019),

“Biosecurity, Biological Weapons Nonproliferation, and Their Future,” remarks at the U.S. National Defense University (April 11, 2019),

“Our Vision for a Constructive, Collaborative Disarmament Discourse,” remarks to the U.N. Conference on Disarmament (March 26, 2019),

“Re-Learning a Competitive Mindset in Great-Power Competition,” remarks at the 2019 conference on “Strategic Weapons in the 21st Century,” in Washington, D.C. (March 14, 2019),

“Stability Engagement with Nuclear ‘Third Parties’: Regional Risk Reduction Diplomacy,” remarks at the Deterrence and Assurance Workshop and Conference, Omaha, Nebraska (March 8, 2019),

“A New Approach to Civil Nuclear Cooperation Policy,” remarks at Hudson Institute, Washington, D.C. (February 26, 2019),

“Action-Planning Session on Curbing Missile Development and Proliferation,” remarks at the Warsaw Ministerial (February 14, 2019),

“The Case for Reforming the Missile Technology Control Regime,” remarks at Hudson Institute, Washington, D.C. (February 12, 2019),

“Nonproliferation Policy and Priorities: A United States Perspective,” remarks to the 7th European Union Nonproliferation and Disarmament Conference (December 18, 2018),

“The Structure and Future of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty,” remarks at the House of Lords in London (December 12, 2018),

“Towards a Successful, Comprehensive, and Enduring Negotiated Solution with Iran,” remarks at Wilton Park, UK (December 11, 2018),

“The P5 Process and Approaches to Nuclear Disarmament: A New Structured Dialogue,” remarks at Wilton Park, UK (December 10, 2018),

“Nuclear Technical Cooperation: Benefits from the Nonproliferation Regime for the Developing World,” remarks at the IAEA Ministerial Conference on Science and Technology (November 29, 2018),

“Nonproliferation with Attitude: Counterproliferation Tools and Diplomacy in U.S. Foreign Policy,” remarks at the Heritage Foundation (November 14, 2018),

“The Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons: A Well-Intentioned Mistake,” remarks at the University of Iceland in Reykjavik (October 30, 2018),

“Why China Technology-Transfer Threats Matter,” remarks at the U.S. Naval Academy (October 24, 2018),

“The Challenge and the Potential of U.S.-Russian Nonproliferation Cooperation,” remarks to the International Advisory Council meeting at the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies, Washington, D.C. (October 22, 2018),

“Sharing the Benefits of Peaceful Nuclear Uses,” remarks to the Joint Session of the G7 Nonproliferation Directors Group and the Nuclear Safety and Security Group in Quebec, Canada (October 16, 2018),

“Where Next in Building a Conditions-Focused Disarmament Discourse?” remarks at the NTI Conference on the Global Enterprise to Strengthen Nonproliferation and Disarmament, New York City (October 14, 2018),

“Preventing Nuclear Smuggling, remarks to the Nuclear Security Working Group,” Wye River Conference Center, Queenstown, Maryland (September 29, 2018),

“Reforming Nonproliferation Programming,” remarks at the Stimson Center, Washington, D.C. (September 25, 2018),

“Nuclear Security Challenges and Opportunities,” remarks to the Nuclear Security Contact Group, Vienna, Austria (September 20, 2018),

“Nonproliferation Lessons Learned,” remarks to the Vienna Center for Disarmament and Non-Proliferation, Vienna, Austria (September 19, 2018),

“Coalitions of Caution: Building a Global Coalition Against Chinese Technology-Transfer Threats,” remarks to the FBI/Department of Commerce “Conference on Counterintelligence and Export Control,” Indianapolis, Indiana (September 13, 2018),

“Implementing CAATSA Section 231 Diplomacy,” testimony before the U.S. Senate Banking Committee (August 21, 2018),

“Moving American Policy Forward in the Aftermath of the Iran Nuclear Deal,” remarks at DACOR Bacon House (July 28, 2018),

“Chinese Technology Transfer Challenges to U.S. Export Control Policy,” remarks to a Project on Nuclear Issues event at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (July 11, 2018),

“Negotiating the NPT, 50 Years On: Some Lessons for the Future,” remarks to a conference by the same name held at the U.S. Department of State (June 28, 2018),

“American Iran Policy in the Aftermath of the JCPOA,” remarks to the Center for a New American Security (June 11, 2018),

“Great Power Competition and Nuclear Strategy,” remarks to the Foreign Policy Association (June 6, 2018),

U.S. Statement on “Disarmament,” at the Second Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2020 Review Conference of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (April 25, 2018),

U.S. Statement on “The History and Promise of the NPT,” at the Second Preparatory Committee meeting for the 2020 Review Conference for the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons (April 23, 2018),

As Special Assistant to the President and

NSC Senior Director for WMD & Counterproliferation

“The Future of Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament,” remarks at the European Union Non-Proliferation Conference in Brussels, Belgium (December 13, 2017),

“Nonproliferation in the Post-Cold War Era,” remarks at Wilton Park, United Kingdom (December 11, 2017),

“Advancing American Security Through Arms Control and Nonproliferation: A Look at the First 11 Months of the Trump Administration,” remarks at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (November 30, 2017),

“The Trump Administration's Agenda in Countering Nuclear Terrorism,” remarks at Hudson Institute (November 14, 2017),

“NPT Wisdom for a New Disarmament Discourse,” remarks to the Ploughshares Fund Conference “Nuclear Weapons Policy in a Time of Crisis,” in Washington, D.C. (October 26, 2017),

“Challenges of the Nonproliferation ‘OODA Loop,’” remarks to NPEC Public Policy Fellows in Washington, D.C. (September 7, 2017),

“Responding to the ‘Ban,’” remarks at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (August 22, 2017),

“President Trump and Nuclear Weapons Policy,” remarks to the Arms Control Association (June 2, 2017),

“WMD and Counterproliferation Policy: Remarks to the V Fund Project Review,” remarks at the U.S. Department of State's Bureau of Arms Control, Verification, and Compliance (March 9, 2017),

As an Independent Scholar

“The Elephant in the Meditation Room,” Lion’s Roar (October 14, 2016),

“Which ‘China’ is it?  And what does this mean?” remarks to Government Accountability Office seminar, National Defense University (Jun 15, 2016),

“Offensive Nuclear Umbrellas and the Challenge of Modern Strategic Thinking,” remarks to the Nuclear Security Working Group (NSWG) Congressional Seminar “Nuclear Security in the 21st Century” (February 10, 2016),

“Realpolitik with Chinese Characteristics: Chinese Strategic Culture and the Modern Communist Party-State,” in Understanding Strategic Cultures in the Asia Pacific (Ashley Tellis, Allison Szalwinski, & Michael Wills, eds.) (National Bureau of Asian Research, 2016)

“China’s Global Ambitions and U.S. Interests,” remarks to the “China Forum” at the U.S. Library of Congress (November 5, 2015)

“China’s Search for Security” (book review) China Review International, vol. 20, nos. 1-2 (2015) at 151-57

“Cyber Strategy: Communist China Has a Concept.  Do We?”  remarks at the “Cyber Security Days Colloquium” at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (October 14, 2015)

“‘China Looks at the West and U.S. China Strategy,’” remarks at Hudson Institute (September 10, 2015),

“Learning about China from its Narrative of America,” remarks at the Cosmos Club, Washington, D.C. (September 9, 2015),

“An NPT Net Assessment: Flawed, Problematic, and Yet Indispensable,” in Routledge Handbook of Nuclear Proliferation and Policy (Nathan E. Busch & Joseph F. Pilat, eds.), at 113-130

“The 2015 NPT Review Conference and the Nonproliferation Regime,” remarks to an event at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (June 3, 2015),

“Meditations on Iran and the Imperiled Nonproliferation Regime,” remarks to an event at the Capitol Hill Club (April 17, 2015),

“Debating a ‘League of Democracies,’” in Human Rights, Human Security, and National Security (working title) (Saul Takahashi, ed.) (3 vols.) (Praeger, 2014)

“Musings on Complexity, Policy, and Ideology,” in World Politics at the Edge of Chaos: Reflections on Complexity and Global Life (Emilian Kavalski, ed.), at 79-109

“Considering the Idea of a Sinocentric World Order,” World and China Affairs, no 2 (2014), at 34-43 [in Chinese]

“The Death of the ‘Liberal Myth’ in U.S. China Policy,” remarks at Hudson Institute (November 20, 2014),

“Ending the Strategic Holiday: U.S. Grand Strategy and a ‘Rising’ China,” Asia Policy, no. 18 (July 2014), at 181-89,

“Confucian Rationalizations for One-Party Dictatorship,” remarks at the Center for U.S.-China Cooperation at the University of Denver (May 9, 2014),

“Evaluating the NPT,” remarks at the George Washington University School of Law (March 12, 2014),

“CTBT and the Senate,” remarks at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (October 30, 2013),

“ITAR From Many Angles,” letter to the editor, Aviation Week & Space Technology (September 23, 2013)

“Strategic Caution, Confrontation, and the ‘Chinese Dream’ of a Sinocentric World,” remarks at a workshop in Washington, D.C. (September 19, 2013),

Minimum Deterrence: Examining the Evidence (Washington, D.C.: National Institute Press, 2013) (contributor with 22 other authors)

“If China Ruled -- A Thought Experiment,” remarks at a workshop in Washington, D.C. (August 16, 2013)

“Conceptual Challenges of Nuclear Deterrence,” in Nuclear Abolition Forum (Issue No. 2, 2013), at 4

“Cyber-Espionage and China’s Dream of National ‘Return’: Is the PRC ‘winning’ the cyber-espionage competition?” PJ Media (May 2, 2013),

“Cooperative Threat Reduction in Russia: A Post Mortem?” Contemporary Security Policy, vol.34, no.1 (April 2013), at 221-25

“U.S.-Australia Dialogue: Scene-Setter,” remarks at the Australian Defence College (April 18, 2013)

“The Asia-Pacific Region’s ‘Operating System’ and the ‘Chinese Dream’ of Global ‘Return,’” remarks at the Australian Defense College, Canberra, Australia (April 18, 2013),

“The Incoherence of ‘Disarmament versus Nonproliferation,’” remarks at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (April 8, 2013),

“Thinking About CTBT,” remarks at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (March 15, 2013),

“Nuclear Disarmament and Nonproliferation: The American Way” (with Thomas Graham), in Security Index, no. 1 (102) (Winter 2013), at 51-64

“Thinking about the U.S. ‘Pivot’ to Asia,” remarks at the Harvard Club of New York City (February 27, 2013),

“Anything But simple: Arms Control and Strategic Stability,” in Strategic Stability: Contending Interpretations (Elbridge A. Colby & Michael S. Gerson, eds.) (Carlisle, Pennsylvania: U.S. Army War College Press, 2013), at 201-69,

“A Perspective Upon Arms Control,” remarks at the U.S. Foreign Service Institute (February 12, 2013)

“Issue-Spotting the February 2013 DPRK Nuclear Test,” remarks at George Washington University Law School (February 13, 2013)

“‘Air/Sea Battle,’ Escalation, and U.S. Strategy in the Pacific,” PJ Media (January 6, 2013),

L’altra Faccia Del Facifismo Taoista,” in Rivista Italiana di Geopolitica, no.6 (2012) (Fabrizio Maronta, trans.), at 187-94

“Nuclear weapons spending: A Strategy for the Future,” remarks at British American Security Information Council event (January 18, 2013),

“Information-based Arms Control and Sino-American Trust,” Hudson Institute (December 2012),

“Obama’s ‘Nixon in China’ Moment on Disarmament,” remarks at Wilton Park, United Kingdom (December 12, 2012),

“What Taiwan Can Teach China’s New Leaders,” Real Clear World (November 24, 2012),

“Disarmament and Nonproliferation: The Next Four Years,” remarks at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (November 28, 2012),

“Iran and the Bomb: The legal standards of the IAEA,” Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (December 17, 2012),

“U.S. Leadership and Security Against Nuclear Terrorism,” remarks to the conference on “Combatting Nuclear Terrorism,” Hudson Institute (November 13, 2012),

“Iran, Nonproliferation, and the IAEA: A Legal History,” Hudson Institute (November 2012),

“Obama’s Dangerous Confidence on Iran,” Real Clear World (October 20, 2012),

“The Foreign Policy Debate and the ‘Incredible Shrinking Obama,’” remarks at Hudson Institute (October 23, 2012),

“Challenges of Regional Peace and Security in East Asia,” remarks to the Congressional Taiwan Caucus (September 27, 2012),

“Making Sense of the U.S. Nuclear Posture and Making it Make Sense,” remarks on September 18, 2012, a Washington, D.C. discussion sponsored by the British American Security Information Center,

“China Views America: Aspiration, Opposition, and the Telos of China’s Return,” Hudson Institute (August 2012)

“Perilous Precedents: Proliferation as Policy in Alternative Nuclear Futures,” remarks at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (June 28, 2012),

“Thinking About a Poly-Nuclear Middle East,” remarks at Hudson Institute workshop on Iran (June 21, 2012),

“Hedging and Engaging with a Future ‘Strong China,’” remarks on June 6, 2012, to an event sponsored by the Air Force Association, Washington, D.C.

“‘Occupy Wall Street’ and Communist China’s Emerging ‘Neo-Kong’ Discourse of Antidemocratic Legitimacy,” Hudson Institute (May 2012),

“Soft on ‘Soft Power,’” SAIS Review, vol. 32, no.1 (Winter-Spring 2012), at 89-111.

“Conceptual Challenges of Nuclear Deterrence,” remarks on May 9, 2012, by videolink to Nuclear Abolition Forum event on “Moving Beyond Nuclear Deterrence to a Nuclear Weapons Free World,” held at the Vienna International Center in Vienna, Austria,

“Nuclear Weapons and the Future of U.S. Policy,” remarks on May 8, 2012, a Washington, D.C. discussion sponsored by the British American Security Information Center,

“Korean Denuclearization: Principles and Proposals,” remarks on April 1, 2012, to “Track II” dialogue with DPRK officials sponsored by Aspen Institute Germany,

“Stalemate and Beyond: The North Korean Nuclear Impasse and Its Future,” International Journal of Korean Unification Studies, vol. 20, no. 2 (2011), at 121-73.

“The NPT Regime and the Challenge of Shaping Proliferator Behavior,” in Over the Horizon Proliferation Threats (James J. Wirtz & Peter Lavoy, eds.) (Sanford: Stanford University Press, 2012).

“Nuclear Weapons Reconstitution and its Discontents: Challenges of ‘Weaponless Deterrence’” in Deterrence: Its Past and Future (George P. Shultz, Sidney D. Drell, & James E. Goobdy eds.) (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 2011), at 131-215.

“Playing for Time on the Edge of the Apocalypse: Maximizing Decision Time for Nuclear Leaders,” in Deterrence: Its Past and Future (George P. Shultz, Sidney D. Drell, & James E. Goobdy eds.) (Stanford, California: Hoover Institution Press, 2011), at 217-77.

“A Wary Diplomat’s Guide to Arms Control Pitfalls,” remarks at the Foreign Service Institute (February 16, 2012)

“Nonproliferation and Covert War: Iran and Beyond,” remarks at the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies (December 6, 2011)

“The NPT Review Process and Nuclear Weapons Proliferation,” remarks at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (November 30, 2011)

“Nuclear Weapons and their Role in the Security Environment,” remarks at the University of Georgia (November 14, 2011)

“A Voter’s Guide to Nonproliferation and Arms Control Issues,” remarks in London to Republicans Abroad UK (October 28, 2011)

“Misinterpreting the NPT,” remarks at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (October 24, 2011)

“National Security Challenges in Cyberspace,” remarks to the Louisville Committee on Foreign Relations (September 21, 2011)

“Looking Ahead to the 2012 Nuclear Security Summit,” remarks at a conference sponsored by the Partnership for a Secure America (September 13, 2011)

“Looking Back at 9/11, Ten Years On,” in Are We Safer? An Online Symposium on the 10th Anniversary of 9/11 (Center for Security Policy, 2011)

“Arms Control and Security Beyond ‘New START’” remarks at conference sponsored by the U.S. Strategic Command (August 3, 2011)

“China and the Cyber Landscape,” remarks to the Center for Security Policy (July 22, 2011)

“America and a Nuclear-Armed Iran,” Decide America (July 2011)

“Nonproliferation Multilateralism and Its Discontents,” remarks to a conference in Berlin sponsored by the Christian-Albrects-Universitat zu Kiel and the Instituto Affari Internazionali (July 7, 2011)

“Controlling Cyber Threats,” remarks to a symposium at the National Press Club sponsored by the George C. Marshall Institute (June 21, 2011)

“Challenges of Knowing and Not Knowing: Verification Diplomacy and Politics,” remarks to the National Defense University Foundation (May 25, 2011)

“Weapons Reconstitution and Strategic Stability,” remarks at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (May 17, 2011)

“Climate Change and the Politics of Scientism,” The New Atlantis (April 20, 2011)

“A Survey of the Nuclear Weapons Landscape,” remarks to the Phoenix Committee on Foreign Relations (April 12, 2011)

“Still Struggling with FMCT,” remarks at Boston College (April 15, 2011)

“Challenges of North Korean Nuclear Negotiation,” in Aspen DPRK-USA Dialogue (C.K. Mallory IV, ed.) (Aspen Institute Germany, 2011), at 63-83

“Nuclear Negotiation with the DPRK: Where Now?” remarks at a Track II dialogue with DPRK officials sponsored by the Aspen Institute Germany (March 28, 2011)

“The Future of Nuclear Deterrence,” remarks to the NATO Nuclear Policy Symposium, Tirana, Albania (March 17, 2011)

“China’s Narratives Regarding National Security Policy,” testimony to the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission (March 10, 2011)

“The Trouble with cyber Arms Control,” The New Atlantis, no.29 (Fall 2010), at 52-67

“Nuclear Deterrence with Unusable Weapons?” remarks at the Hoover Institution (February 28, 2011)

“Policymaking at the Edge of Chaos,” E-IR (February 7, 2011),

“Musings on Political Ideology Through the Lens of Complexity,” paper presented to the conference on “Is Complexity the New Framework for the Study of Global Life?” Sydney, Australia (January 19-20, 2011).

“South Asian Stability and Nuclear Weapons Proliferation,” National Security Policy Proceedings, vol.3 (Fall 2010), at 75-79,%20vol.%203%20-%20Fall%202010.pdf

“Conventional ‘Replacement’ of Nuclear Weapons?” remarks to conference on “Conventional Deterrence in the Second Nuclear Age” at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (December 19, 2010)

Nuclear Weapons Reconstitution and its Discontents: Challenges of “Weaponless Deterrence” (Hudson Institute: November 2010)

Playing for Time on the Edge of the Apocalypse: Maximizing Decision Time for Nuclear Leaders (Hudson Institute: November 2010)

“International Cooperation against WMD Proliferation,” remarks to the International Conference on Science and International Security, Madrid, Spain (November 8, 2010)

Terrorbekämpfung als Priorität für die US-Sicherheitspolitik,” in KAS Auslandinformationen (August 2010), at 66-89; reprinted as “Counter-Terrorism as a U.S. National Security Priority (Hudson Institute: November 2010),

“Disarmament Versus Nonproliferation?” remarks to an event sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (October 28, 2010)

“China, History, and the Future,” remarks to the Center for National Policy (October 20, 2010)

“The Treaty After Next?” remarks to a working group of the Project on Nuclear Issues (PONI) at the Center for Strategic and International Studies (October 6, 2010)

“A Nuclear-Armed Iran in the Future Security Environment,” remarks to a conference on “The Strategic Implications of the Iranian Nuclear Program,” Aspen Institute Germany (September 24, 2010)

“Nuclear Technology Rights and Wrongs: The NPT, Article IV, and Nonproliferation” in Reviewing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty (Henry Sokolski, ed.) (Carlisle, Pennsylvania: Strategic Studies Institute, 2010), at pp.237-384

Selling “New START” (Hudson Institute, July 2010)

“Chinese Conceptions of Global Order,” remarks to Hudson Institute event (July 14, 2010)

“Whither the NPT?  Or Wither the NPT?  A view from the U.S.” published as “Dove v ail Trattato di Non Proliferazione Nucleare?  Un punto di vista Americano,” Nomos & Khaos, Rapporto Nomisma 2009-2010 (Rome: Osservatorio Scenari Strategici e di Sicurezza, 2010), at pp.177-90 (also appearing in English edition of that publication, at pp.171-81)

“Iran’s Coming Nuclear ‘Opacity,’” presentation to event sponsored by the National Defense University Foundation (June 22, 2010)

“Nonproliferation in Strategic Asia,” presentation to roundtable event at the Asia Policy Forum (June 18, 2010)

“Complexity Science: Challenges for Policymakers,” presentation to Madrona Institute (June 10, 2010)

“Why Not Nuclear Disarmament?” The New Atlantis (Spring 2010) at pp.3-20

“Tomorrow’s Disarmament Debates,” presentation to a Hudson Institute side event at the 2010 NPT Review Conference (Mqy 18, 2010)

“An Alternative Civil Society View of Nuclear Deterrence,” presentation to the 2010 NPT Review Conference (May 7, 2010)

“Assessing the NPT Debates So Far,” remarks to conference sponsored by the Partnership for a Secure America and Hudson Institute (May 24, 2010)

“After the Security Summit and the RevCon: What Next?” remarks to the Congressional Nuclear Security Caucus (April 29, 2010)

“Some Thoughts on NPT ‘Guardians,’ ‘Spoilers,’ and ‘Free Riders,’” remarks to the Stimson Center and the James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies (April 28, 2010)

Testimony before the U.S. House of Representative, Committee on Foreign Affairs (April 21, 2010)

“Controlling Nuclear Materials Worldwide: Assessing the Summit,” remarks to conference sponsored by Partnership for a Secure America and Hudson Institute (April 14, 2010)

“The U.S. Nonproliferation Agenda and the 2010 NPT Review Conference,” remarks at the Sandia National Laboratory (March 24, 2010)

“Waiting for Obama’s Policy on Nukes,” AOL News (March 8, 2010)

“Devil in the Details: Nuclear Command and Control in a Nuclear-Armed Middle East,” remarks at Hudson Institute conference (February 24, 2010)

“East Asia and Proliferation: Storm Warnings?” remarks to conference sponsored by the Partnership for a Secure America and Hudson Institute (February 22, 2010)

“Perspectives Upon a Nuclear Iran” (with S. Enders Wimbush), Pajamas Media (January 14, 2010)

“Living in the ‘New Normal’ of Counter-Terrorism,” remarks to a conference sponsored by the Jerusalem Center for Public Affairs and Hudson Institute (December 10, 2009)

“To Repair, Reconstruct, or Re-imagine the NPT Regime” in Strategic Asia 2009-2010 (Seattle: National Bureau of Asian Research, 2009), at 261

“Strengthening the NPT Review Process: Substance is Key,” remarks to the United Nations Conference on Nonproliferation and Disarmament Issues, Jeju Island, Republic of Korea (November 16, 2009)

“Diplomatic Challenges for the U.S. Nuclear Posture Review,” remarks at a conference sponsored by the Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars (October 21, 2009)

“Same Planet, Different Worlds?  The U.S. Nuclear Consensus and the Diplomatic Conventional Wisdom,” remarks to Hudson Institute workshop on the report of the Strategic Posture Review Commission (October 21, 2009)

“Learning to Speak Disarmament in the Language of Security,” remarks at the Hoover Institution (September 29, 2009)

“Nuclear Disarmament, Nonproliferation, and the ‘Credibility Thesis,’” Hudson Institute Paper (September 2009),

“Test Ban Treaty, Take Two,” The New Atlantis (Summer 2009), at 112

“Nukes and the Vow: Security Strategy as Peacework,” Upaya Compassionate Action Network (July 2009)

“Prospects and Challenges for East-West Arms Cooperation on Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament,” remarks to the Aspen Institute of Contemporary German Studies (June 10, 2009)

“Nonproliferation and Technology Rights: Why Article IV Doesn’t Have to be the NPT’s Suicide Note,” presentation to NGO side-event at 3rd Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 NPT Review Conference, United Nations, New York (May 8, 2009)

"Strengthening the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Regime" (panel discussion), Council on Foreign Relations, New York (May 8, 2009),

“Speaking Candidly About Nonproliferation and Disarmament,” presentation to 3rd Session of the Preparatory Committee for the 2010 NPT Review Conference, United Nations, New York (May 5, 2009),

“Five Plus Three: How to Have a Meaningful and Helpful Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty,” Arms Control Today (March 2009), at 24,

“Proliferation Logics and Our Nuclear Future in the 21st Century,” Asia Policy, no.7 (January 2009), at 114.

“International Negotiations: A Tool to Serve our Interests,” (with Douglas Feith) Hudson Institute series on Perspectives for the New Administration,

“Transformative Leadership in Arms Control and Nonproliferation,” Hudson Institute series on Perspectives for the New Administration,

“Relations Between Intelligence Analysts and Policymakers: The Lessons of Iraq” Hudson Institute series on Perspectives for the New Administration,

“Transformative Leadership in Arms Control and Nonproliferation,” paper presented at Wiston House, Wilton Park, United Kingdom (December 15, 2008)

“Mumbai Made Clear the Dangers of Nuclear Weapons Proliferation,” Pajamas Media (December 6, 2008),

“Is Torture Ever Justified?” expert contribution to Opposing Views,

“Is China a Threat to the United States?” expert contribution to Opposing Views,

“Deterrence To – and Through – ‘Zero’: Challenges of Disarmament and Proliferation,” paper presented to the Nonproliferation Forum at the Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C. (November 14, 2008)

“Dilemmas of Nuclear Force ‘De-Alerting,’” paper presented to the International Peace Institute, New York, NY (October 7, 2008)

“A New Paradigm: Shattering Obsolete Thinking on Arms Control and Nonproliferation,” Arms Control Today (November 2008), at 12,

“Christopher A. Ford Responds,” Nonproliferation Review, vol.15, no.3 (October 2008), at 418,

“India’s Nuclear Technology” (letter to the editor), The Economist (September 13, 2008), at 22,

“Debating Disarmament: Interpreting Article VI of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons,” Nonproliferation Review, vol.14, no.3 (November 2007), at 402,

“Disarmament and Non-Nuclear Stability in Tomorrow’s World,” Mongolian Journal of International Affairs (September 2007), at 63 (see also

“Past as Prism: China and the Shock of Plural Sovereignty,” Joint Forces Quarterly, no.47 (4th Quarter 2007), at 14

“A Nonproliferation Bestiary: Typology and Analysis of Nonproliferation Regimes,” NYU Journal of International Law and Politics, vol.39, no.4 (Summer 2007), at 937

“Nuclear Nonproliferation and Unique Issues of Compliance – Compliance Assessment and Compliance Enforcement: The Challenge of Nuclear Noncompliance,” ILSA Journal of International and Comparative Law, vol.12, no.2 (Spring 2006), at 583

“The Naval Intelligence Underpinnings of Reagan’s Maritime Strategy,” Journal of Strategic Studies, vol.28, no.2 (April 2005), at 379-409 [Honorable Mention (runner-up) for the Eller Prize from the U.S. Naval Historical Center]

“September 11 and the Imperative of Reform in the U.S. Intelligence Community,” in Final Report of the Joint Inquiry into the September 11 Terrorist Attacks (December 10, 2002) (drafter of “Additional Views” for Senator Richard Shelby),

“Challenges and Dilemmas of Racial and Ethnic Identity in American and Post-Apartheid South African Affirmative Action,” Human Rights and Discrimination, vol.1 (A.J. Van Der Walt, ed.) (Pretoria: University of South Africa, 1997), at 124 [reprint of UCLA Law Review article below]

“Watching the Watchdog: Security Oversight Law in the New South Africa,” Michigan Journal of Race and Law, vol.3, no. 1 (Fall 1997)

“Challenges and Dilemmas of Racial and Ethnic Identity in American and Post-Apartheid South African Affirmative Action,” UCLA Law Review, vol.43, no.6 (August 1996)

“Dinosaur’s Dilemma,” Naval Institute Proceedings (September 1996) [2nd Honorable Mention, Colin L. Powell Joint Warfighting Essay Contest], at 78

“Preaching Propriety to Princes:  Grotius, Lipsius, & Neo-Stoic International Law,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law vol.28, no.2 (Spring 1996)

“The Indigenization of Constitutionalism in the Japanese Experience,” Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, vol.28, no.1 (Winter 1996)

“Executive Prerogatives in Federal Indian Jurisprudence: The Constitutional Law of Tribal Recognition,” Denver University Law Review, vol.73, no.1 (1995)

Siyar-ization and Its Discontents: International Law and Islam’s Constitutional Crisis,” Texas International Law Journal, vol.30, no.3 (Summer 1995)

“War Powers As We Live Them: Congressional-Executive Bargaining Under the Shadow of the War Powers Resolution,” Journal of Law and Politics, vol.11, no.4 (1995)

“Adjudicating Jus Cogens,” Wisconsin International Law Journal, vol.13, no.1 (Fall 1994)

“Judicial Discretion in International Jurisprudence: Article 38(1)(c) and ‘General Principles of Law,’” Duke Journal of Comparative and International Law, vol.5, no.1 (1994)

“Administering Identity: The Determination of ‘Race’ in Race-Conscious Law,” California Law Review, vol.82, no.5 (October 1994)

As U.S. Special Representative for Nuclear Nonproliferation

“The 2010 NPT Review Cycle So Far:  A View from the United States of America,”, remarks at Wilton Park, UK (December 20, 2007)

“Nuclear Disarmament and the ‘Legalization’ of Policy Discourse in the NPT Regime,”, remarks to conference sponsored by the Nonproliferation Review (November 29, 2007)

“In Praise of Complexity: Some Thoughts on Disarmament Ethics in the Real World,” remarks to 19th Annual United Nations Conference on Disarmament Issues, Sapporo, Japan (August 27, 2007)

“A Work Plan for the 2010 Review Cycle: Coping with Challenges Facing the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty,” remarks to 2007 NPT Preparatory Committee meeting, Vienna, Austria (April 30, 2007)

Achieving and Sustaining Nuclear Weapons Elimination,, paper in preparation for 2007 NPT Preparatory Committee (PrepCom) meeting (March 17, 2007)

Facilitating Disarmament,, paper in preparation for 2007 NPT PrepCom (March 17, 2007)

The United States and the Fissile Material Cutoff Treaty (3/17/07)

Essays Exclusively for New Paradigms Forum

Links to essays on the New Paradigms Forum website ( may be found at Essays include:

  • Puncturing Beijing’s Propaganda Bubble: Seven Themes (November 20, 2015)
  • Challenges for Nuclear Security Cooperation in Russia (October 7, 2014)
  • Intelligence Analysts and Information Consumers (March 7, 2014)
  • “Minimum Deterrence” and Nonproliferation (January 25, 2014)
  • The “Interim” Iranian Nuclear Deal: Deja vu all over again?  (November 27, 2013)
  • Thinking About a “Very Low” Nuclear Force Posture (October 19, 2013)
  • Arms Control and Strategic Stability (February 14, 2013)
  • Sinocentrism for the Information Age: Comments on the 4th Xiangshan Forum (1/13/13)
  • Colloquy: Anne Harrington and Chris Ford on “Nuclear Weapons as a Currency of Power” (9/20/12)
  • “Iran Prepares Excuses for Bomb-Grade Uranium Outside Safeguards” (7/24/12)
  • “A State of Moral Confucian” (7/13/12)
  • “‘Occupy Wall Street’ and Communist Chinese Propaganda” (6/4/12)
  • “American ‘Soft Power’: Allure and Confusion” (5/17/12)
  • “Unpacking the DPRK-U.S. Leap Day ‘Agreement’” (4/9/12)
  • “The Continuing DRPK Nuclear Impasse: Don’t Hold Your Breath” (3/14/12)
  • Response to “Guest Blog by Gregory Schulte: ‘Moving Toward a Space Code of Conduct’” (2/29/12)
  • “North Korean ‘Denuclearization’ After Kim Jong-il” (2/8/12)
  • “Late Qing Reformers and Today’s Chinese Communists View America: Plus ça change?” (1/24/12)
  • “Iran Ain’t Japan” (1/11/12)
  • “When Censor Meets Spin Doctor: Liberty, the Internet, and Power in China” (11/10/11)
  • Response to “Greg Schulte on Space Security: ‘Adjusting to an Evolving Domain’” (9/13/11)
  • “Debating Military Strategy in the Western Pacific: A Dialogue” (9/6/11)
  • “From Rags to Enriches: Lasers and Uranium Production” (8/24/11)
  • “More on Sovereignty: A Dialogue” (7/18/11)
  • “On Sovereignty” (7/4/11)
  • “Law, Legitimacy, and Libya: Tyrants and Customary Law” (6/28/11)
  • “Twenty-one Principles for the 21st Century” (6/9/11)
  • “The Bin Laden Raid: This Isn’t Your Father’s CIA” (5/9/11)
  • Response to “Paul Ingram on NATO Nuclear Policy” (4/25/11)
  • “NATO, ‘Nuclear Sharing,’ and the ‘INF Analogy’” (3/30/11)
  • “On Sanctions … and Iran” (2/14/11)
  • “Ford and Mistry: A Colloquy on South Asian Nuclear Stability” (2/1/11)
  • “Haves and Have-Nots: ‘Unfairness in Nuclear Weapons Possession” (1/10/11)
  • “The Catch-22 of NFU” (1/4/11)
  • “Law and the Worm” (12/29/10)
  • “A Nonproliferation and Disarmament Colloquy: Wellen and Ford” (12/7/10)
  • “Politics and Verification: Lessons of North Korea” (12/1/10)
  • “Is ‘Weaponless Deterrence’ Possible?” (11/25/10)
  • “Nuclear ‘De-Alerting’ and Effective Decision Time” (11/21/10)
  • “A Nuclear Colloquy: Lowry and Ford on “The Nuclear Bazaar” (11/15/10)
  • “A Nuclear Testing Colloquy: Pierce Corden and Chris Ford” (9/20/10)
  • “Politics and Internet Governance” (9/14/10)
  • “A Nuclear Deterrence Colloquy: Steven Leeper and Chris Ford” (9/7/10)
  • “Russia Takes a Swing at Compliance Analysis” (8/30/10)
  • “Dumbing-Down Iranian Compliance Analysis” (8/23/10)
  • “Nuclear Testing and the Noncompliance Report” (8/16/10)
  • “The Arab-Israeli Peace Process and Herzl’s Dilemma” (8/10/10)
  • “Crying Fowl?  Nondelegation and ‘New START” (8/5/10)
  • “‘New START’ and Missile Defense” (7/26/10)
  • “‘New START’ and Prompt Strike” (7/23/10)
  • “Here Come the Cyber-Privateers” (7/19/10)
  • “The Inflation of ‘National Security’” (7/12/10)
  • “The Officer Krupke Theory of Proliferation” (6/30/10)
  • “A Conveniently Partial Iranian Arms Embargo” (6/17/10)
  • Wikileaks, Secrets, and Hypocrisy” (6/16/10)
  • “Cracks in the Shell of Globalist Treaty-Universalism” (6/7/10)
  • “Cyber Operations: Some Policy Challenges” (6/3/10)
  • “The 2020 NPT Review Conference Final Document” (6/1/10)
  • “Lowry & Ford: An Exchange on Iran and NPT Outliers” (5/13/10)
  • “‘New START’ Eliminates Arms Limits for Seven Years” (5/11/10)
  • “More on ‘New START’: An Insider Responds, and Ford Comments” (5/3/10)
  • “Does ‘New START’ Fumble Reloads and Rail-Mobile ICBMS?” (4/26/10)
  • “The ‘New START’ Agreement: ‘Reduced by a Third’ … Or Not?” (4/9/10)
  • “Obama’s Nuclear Review Is, Shockingly, Not Awful” (4/7/10)
  • “The Obama NPR: Issue-by-Issue Account and Comments” (4/7/10)
  • “The Obama Nuclear Review: Initial Reactions” (4/6/10)
  • “Ford Responds to Lowry: Nuclear Modernization” (4/2/10)
  • “Post-START Numbers and Nuclear Modernization” (3/30/10)
  • “Controlling Nuclear Materials Worldwide” (3/1/10)
  • “An Exchange on Arms Control Verification” (2/26/10)
  • “Nonproliferation, Arms Control, Disarmament, and ‘Sally Field Diplomacy’: The Obama Administration’s First Year” (1/21/10)
  • “Some Thoughts on How Not to do WMD Intelligence: Lessons of Politicization After Iraq” (1/4/10)
  • “Unpacking the Nobel Speech: Just War, Multilateralism, and Nuclear Compliance Enforcement” (12/12/09)
  • “The Promise and Problems of Security Council ‘Automaticity’” (12/7/09)
  • “More Iranian Safeguards Violations: What will the IAEA Do?” (11/20/09)
  • “ElBaradism and the Iranian Goal of a Fait Accompli” (10/17/09)
  • “The Dawn of Network Warfare: Whither Deterrence?” (10/14/09)
  • “Law, Iran, and The Bomb” (10/7/09)
  • “Not Too Impressive an Improvisation: Assessing the Iranian Nuclear Talks of October 1, 2009” (10/2/09)
  • “Assessing the Final U.N. Security Council Resolution on Nonproliferation and Disarmament” (9/25/09)
  • “Analysis of the Obama Administration’s Draft U.N. Security Council Resolution on Nonproliferation and Disarmament” (9/15/09)
  • “Obama’s Chance to Set Things Straight on Nuclear Technology Rights” (9/14/09)
  • “Getting Ready to Get ‘Space Weapons’ Wrong” (8/27/09)
  • “Of ‘Wet Work’ and Congressional Reporting: The Scandal That (Apparently) Wasn’t” (8/2/09)
  • “Assessing the Bush-Obama Doctrine of ‘Global’ Counter-Terrorist War” (7/28/09)
  • “Ford Responds to Russ Wellen’s Questions on FMCT” (7/28/09)
  • “FMCT Verification: ‘Effective’ or Not?” (7/20/09)

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